Annex A - Group Research Proposal

 
11 Group Project Proposal (Engineering)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names : Chen Ting Song, Pansak Jirapong and Celeste low Xueling

Class: S2-08

Group Reference: G

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:
                                                          
[  X  ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households

  1. Type & Category

Type of research: 6   

6. Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research (ENGINEERING)
(a) Identify market need for product
(b) Design product with the potential to meet the need
(c) Build prototype products
(d) Determine whether products function as desired
(e) Optimise products with respect to cost, speed, environmental consequences, and other factors that affect profit
(f) Bring product to market and continue

Category  –    16     
16. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (EV)
(a) Atmosphere: Air Pollution and Air Quality
(b) Lithosphere: Soil Contamination and Soil Quality
(c) Hydrosphere: Water Pollution and Water Quality
(d) Other

Sub-category –   C    
(c) Hydrosphere: Water Pollution and Water Quality

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:
We want to develop a Cheap filter system for rural areas so as to improve the water quality and quality of life.

Fig.1 : African Boy drinking Water

C.    Write down your research title:

Development of water filtration system for the rural areas

                     Fig 2. Rural Areas

D.   (a) Problem being addressed
    
          According to Helmer M. (2016) , Water pollution is a global problem, especially in developing regions of Africa. About 70 percent of Earth is covered in water but only 2.5 percent of Earth's water is fresh, drinkable water, and most of that is trapped in ice at the poles or deep underground. That leaves about 0.007 percent of Earth's water available for almost seven billion of us to use for drinking, growing food, providing energy, and producing goods. Even items you might not think about require water to produce. For example, a single pair of blue jeans requires about 3,000 gallons of water to produce because they are made of cotton, and cotton is a water-intensive crop.

          Like so many other issues we face today, water shortage is the price we pay for a booming population as well as industrial and technological progress. Because of Africa's environmental, demographic, and economic issues, the region is one of the hardest hit areas of the water crisis, and serves as a warning sign for the rest of the globe.

          Like Africa, Many of the third world countries do not have access to clean drinkable water. Water laced with contaminants such as bacteria, viruses, lead, arsenic ,human waste, animal waste, fertilizers, and industrial by-products lead to diarrhea, lethal parasites, and diseases such as typhoid and dysentery that claims millions of lives each year. Children are especially vulnerable to fighting off sanitation-based illnesses, and it is estimated that over half a million children die annually as a result of drinking polluted water. But an inexpensive solution that effectively clears such contaminants from water may help solve this problem.

Fig. 3  Percentage Breakdown of Water types


Fig. 4 Percentage of Water to Land On Earth’s Surface

(b) Goals

We want to create a cheap method to help the people living in rural areas by giving them food and make their processed waste as filter systems after eaten.


Fig. 5 Banana Peels

(c) Specify Requirements

  1. We want the water to have a pH value of 7
  2. to be removed of dirt, big particles, toxics and solutions that may lead to cancer  
  3. to be purified and filtered of Cancer-causing molecules.


Fig. 6 pH Values
(d) 3 possible Solutions

Fig. 7 Water Purification

We could use all types of fruits as all fruits have purifying purposes.But some types of Fruits have better Purification solutions in them.They are Banana, Apple, Pomelo, Durian (shell), Tomato, Lime juice, Coconut, Lemon Juice. Other materials such as Grass, Sand, Charcoal and Rocks also have a filtering component too. According to Helmer M. (2016), However they do not remove the toxics in the water, this leads to diarrhea, lethal parasites, and diseases such as typhoid and dysentery, worse still possibly cancer.

   So, the 3 best possible solutions are

  1.  Put a layer of grass ( 1st layer ), Layer of sand ( 2nd layer, below grass ) , Charcoal from fire ( 3rd layer, below the layer of sand ).
/2
Fig. 8 Water Purification system using Sands.

  1. A device that makes use of UV rays to purify the water by killing the bacteria in it .
Image result for uv water filter
Fig 9 UV filtration

  1. Using Fruits such as Banana, Apple and Pomelo to remove some constituents of the water that may cause sickness and disease.

Fig. 10  Apple Peels

(e) Choice and rationale for choice

Suggested factors for consideration:

Factors
Critical Thinking question
Weight
Is the weight suitable?
Size
Is the size suitable?
Cost to produce
Do you have the financial support to produce it?
Robustness
Is the solution sturdy, resilient, and unlikely to fail?
Resources
Do you have or can you get the materials you need?
Time
Do have time to make the solution and debug it?
Safety
Is the solution safe to build, use, store, and dispose of?
Environmental Impact
Does the device in anyway, have a negative impact on the environment?
Elegance
Is the solution simple, clever, or ingenious?
Aesthetics
Is the solution tasteful and pleasing to look at?
Skill Required
Do you have the skills to make the solution?
Ease of use
Is the device easy to use?

Table 4: List of factors for consideration in the design of the prototype

Factors
Reasoning
Cost
As our project is for rural areas, it got to be cheap.
Time
It got to be fast as there are millions of people waiting to drink clean water.
Ease of use
It got to be easy to use for it must be of use to
Third-world country citizens.
Environmental Impact
Does the device in anyway, have a negative impact on the environment?


Ranking matrix


Time
Ease of use
Cost
Total
Time

3
3
6
Ease of use
0

2
2
Cost
0
1

1

Table 1: The ranking matrix for factors affecting the choice

Decision making grid E
Requirement

Solution 1 :
Grass and others
Solution 2 :
UV Rays
Solution 3 :
Fruits
Factors
Normalised value
Votes (0 to 5)
Normalised votes
Votes (0 to [5)
Normalised votes
Votes (0 to 5)
Normalised votes
#1: Time
0.5
5
2.5
5
2.5
4
2.0
#2: Cost
0.3
2
0.6
1
0.3
5
1.5
#3: Ease of use
0.2
2
0.4
2
0.4
5
2.5
Total points


3.5

3.2

6

Table 2: The decision making matrix for the 3 most important factors.


So, the Solution chosen is using Fruits.

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:
 
  1. School Pond’s Water
  2. Bananas
  3. Wire Mesh
  4. Acrylic tube
  5. Saw
  6. Waterproof glue / Silicone
  7. Pump @ lab
  8. Pipe @  (1.2m 400cm per tube 3 tubes and 4 cm diameter)
  9. Fish Tank @ lab
  10. Pomelo
  11. Activated Carbon
  12. Knife
  13. Chopping Board
  14. Flow Rate Sensor FLO-BTA
  15. Vernier LabQuest 2 Data Logger
  16. PVC screw thread
  17. Plastic Pipe
  18. Pipe Cap














(b) Diagrams


 Diagram  1


(c) Procedures for building: Detail all procedures for construction of prototype

  1. Construct three tubes with wire mesh and the connectors. ( the above diagram )
  2. Fill up each tube with Pomelo , Banana peel and Activated Carbon respectively
  3. Close the items inside with plastic mesh
  4. Connect the Acrylic tubes to each other via pipe connectors.
  5. Connect the pump to the Input and Output of the Pipe.

(d) Procedures for testing: Detail all procedures for testing of prototype

  • Take a sample of the school Pond’s Water using a beaker.
  • Put the water into the Filter
  • Test the water out for the pH value using the pH Sensor, Total Phosphates test, Turbidity test, Nitrates test and Total Suspended solids test.
  • See the result.



(e) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

Risk
Assessment
Management
As the experiments involve collecting water, there is a risk of falling into the school pond.
low
Have a groupmate nearby to steady/help the person, so as to ensure that He or She does not fall
As the experiment involves mincing Banana peels, there is a risk of cutting of hands.
High
Have a Group mate to observe the experiment, if anything happens the Group mate can contact a lab assistant for help.
As the experiment involves cutting acrylic Tubes, there is a risk of
breakage and cutting of the hands.
High
Wear gloves when carrying out the experiment. In case of breakage, the cut to the hands will be minimized.

Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table

(f) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer engineering goals
  1.  We can find out the difference between the two tests and find out the average.
  2. We can test out for the pH level, and testify that the water is good for drinking.
  3. We can find out the flow rate, Total Phosphates, Turbidity , Nitrates and Total Suspended solids of the water .


F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.



(a) Books :

Wood, T., & Anurag Pongsatorn, P. (2010). An introduction to the freshwater bryozoans of Thailand. Bangkok, Thailand: Kasetsart University Press.

Fig. 11 Freshwater Bryozoans



(b) Journals


Fig. 12 Coconut Husks

(c) Websites

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